THE DIFFERENCE IN THE TOTAL CHOLESTEROL/HDL-C RATIO IN TYPE-2 DM PATIENTS WITH DIABETIC ULCERS AND WITHOUT DIABETIC ULCERS IN BETHESDA HOSPITAL YOGYAKARTA

Devina Sagitania, Purwoadi Sujatno, Fenty Fenty

Abstract


Diabetes mellitus (DM) is one of the diseases that annually shows an increase. An increase of DM prevalence will follow the increasing diabetic ulcers complication. Cholesterol could influence to create ulcer through atherosclerosis process. Ratio of total cholesterol/HDL is an important predictor to detect early risk of vascular complication in type 2 DM patients that can manifest as diabetic ulcers. This study aims to know whether there is any difference in the Total Cholesterol/HDL-C Ratio in type-2 DM patients with diabetic ulcers and without diabetic ulcers. This study was an analytic observational with cross-sectional approach. Data collection was done using the purposive sampling with a sample size of 30 patients of diabetes mellitus with diabetic ulcers and 30 patients without diabetic ulcers. The data were analyzed by Mann-Whitney. The median results in Total cholesterol/HDL-C ratio between Type-2 DM patients with diabetic ulcers and without diabetic ulcers were 6.025 and 3.680 respectively. The median of cholesterol total/HDL-C ratio Type-2 DM patients with diabetic ulcers was higher than those without diabetic ulcers. Mann-Whitney showed the value of  P = 0.000, so that this study found a significant difference. In conclusion, the ratio of total cholesterol/HDL-C in type-2 DM patients with diabetic ulcer was significantly higher than type-2 DM patients without diabetic ulcers in Bethesda Hospital, Yogyakarta.


Keywords


diabetic ulcers; HDL; total cholesterol; type-2 diabetes mellitus

Full Text:

PDF

References


Ahn, N. and Kim, K., 2016. High-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) in cardiovascular disease: effect of exercise training. Integrative Medicine Research, 5, 212–215.

American Diabetes Association, 2015. Diabetes Care. Standards of Medical Care in Diabetes.

Bleda, S., de Haro, J., Varela, C., Esparza, L., Rodriguez, J., and Acin, F., 2012. Improving Total-Cholesterol/HDL-Cholesterol Ratio Results in an Endothelial Dysfunction Recovery in Peripheral Artery Disease Patients. Journal of Cholesterol. 2012, 895326.

Brownrigg, J.R., Davey, J., Holt, P.J., Davis, W.A., Thomson, M.M., Ray, K.K., and Hinchliffe, R.J., 2012. The Association of Ulceration of the Foot with Cardio-vascular and All-cause Mortality in Patients with Diabetes: A Meta-Analysis. Diabetalogia, 55 (11), 2906-2912.

Cagliero, E., 2016. Diabetes and Long Term Complications. In: Jameson, J., Grott, L., Kretser D. 7th ed. Endocrinology: Adult and Pediatric. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders.

Chen X., Zhou L., and Hussain M., 2016. Lipids and Dyslipoproteinemia. In: McPherson. Henry's Clinical Diagnosis and Management by Laboratory Methods. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders.

Dionyssiou-Asteriou, A., Papastamatiou, M., Vatalas, I.A., and Bastounis, E., 2002. Serum Apolipoprotein AI Levels in Atherosclerotic and Diabetic Patients. European Journal of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery, 24(2) 161-165.

Ikura, K., Hanai, K., Shinjyo, T., and Uchigata, Y., 2015. HDL cholesterol as a predictor for the incidence of lower extremity amputation and wound-related death in patients with diabetic foot ulcers. Atherosclerosis. 239 (2), 465-469.

Jeffrey, A., Kalish, M.D., and Frank B., 2016. Diabetic Foot Problems. In: John, W. Comprehensive Vascular and Endovascular Surgery. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders.

Jiang, R., Schulze, M. B., and Hu, F.B. 2004., Non-HDL cholesterol and apolipoprotein b predict cardiovascular disease events among men with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care.

Kementrian Kesehatan Republik Indonesia, 2013, Riset Kesehatan Dasar 2013 [online]. Ministry of Health Republic of Indonesia. Available from: http://www.depkes.go.id/resources/download/general/Hasil%20Riskesdas%202013.pdf [Accessed 27 June 2017].

Manda, V., Sreedharan. J., Muttappallymyalil, J., Das, R., and Hisamatsu, E., 2012. Foot ulcers and risk factors among diabetic patients visiting Surgery Department in a University Teaching Hospital in Ajman, UAE. International Journal of Medicine and Public Health, 2(3), 34-38.

Millán, J., Pintó, X., Muñoz, A., Zúñiga, M., Rubiés-Prat, J., Pallardo, L.F., Masana, L., Mangas, A., et al., 2009. Lipoprotein ratios: Physiological significance and clinical usefulness in cardiovascular prevention. Vascular Health and Risk Management, 5, 757-765.

Mohammad, Z., Abida, M., and Jamal, A. 2012. Plasma adiponectin, IL-6, hsCRP, and TNF-α levels in subject with diabetic foot and their correlation with clinical variables in a North Indian tertiary care hospital. Indian Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism, 16(5), 769-7.

Mounier, V.C., Stephan, D., and Aboyans, V. 2007. The best of vascular medicine in 2006. Arch Mal Coeur Vaiss, 100, 47–55.

NCEP-ATP III, 2001. Executive Summary of the Third Report of the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) Expert Panel on Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Cholesterol In Adults (Adult Treatment Panel III). JAMA, 285, 2486– 2497.

Olamoyegun, M.A., Oluyombo, R., and Asaolu, S.O., 2016. Evaluation of dyslipidemia, lipid ratios, and atherogenic index as cardiovascular risk factors among semi-urban dwellers in Nigeria. Annals of African Medicine, 15(4), 194-199.

Perkumpulan Endokrinologi Indonesia, 2015. Panduan Pengelolaan Dislipidemia di Indonesia 2015. Jakarta: PB. Perkeni.

Rodrigues, J. and Mitta, N., 2011. Diabetic Foot and Gangrene [online]. IntechOpen. Available from: https://www.intechopen.com/books/gangrene-current-concepts-and-management-options/diabetic-foot-and-gangrene [Accessed 27 June 2017].

Schaper, N.C., Andros, G., Apelqvist, J., Bakker, K., Lammer, J., Lepantalo, M., Mills, J.L., Reekers, J., Shearman, C.P., Zierler, R.E., and Hinchliffe, R.J., 2012. Diagnosis and treatment of peripheral arterial disease in diabetic patients with a foot ulcer. Aprogress report of the International Working Group on the Diabetic Foot. Diabetes Metab Research and Review, 28(Suppl 1), 218–224.

Tarwoto, 2012. Keperawatan Medikal Bedah-Gangguan Sistem Endokrin. CV Trans Info Media. DKI Jakarta.




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.24071/jpsc.151617

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Copyright (c) 2018 Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Community

J Pharm Sci Community indexed by:

                                       

 

 

 

 

 

Creative Commons Licence
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Community is published by Faculty of Pharmacy, Universitas Sanata Dharma, Yogyakarta, Indonesia.

 


View Statistics of JFSK