Maria Dewi Puspitasari Tirtaningtyas Gunawan-Puteri, Felicia Rustandi, Phebe Hendra


Lemongrass was found to be a promising herb for anti-hyperglycemia treatment due to its activities to inhibit alpha glucosidase and alpha amylase in vitro activities and ability to improve blood glucose profile. Lemongrass potency through its anti-hyperglycemic ingredients requires evaluation of the functional stability during processing. In this study, the in vitro anti-hyperglycemic activities of spray-dried aqueous extract of lemongrass were determined by its inhibitory activity against rat intestinal glucosidase enzymatic hydrolysis of sucrose. In vivo activity was observed based on its ability to prevent blood glucose elevation in oral glucose, sucrose and maltose tolerance tests (OGTT, OSTT and OMTT). The in vitro evaluation showed that aqueous extraction, which involved stirring at 70 °C for 40 min, successfully increased the glucosidase inhibitory activity of lemongrass extract, while spray drying with inlet 130 °C had no significant impact to the activity tested in vitro. Spray-dried lemongrass powder was found to be effective for lowering blood glucose level in OGTT, OSTT and OMTT. This study provides support for further development of lemongrass extracts as functional ingredients for hyperglycemia treatment.


anti hyperglycemia; aqueous extract; lemongrass; spray-dried powder

Full Text:



Adeneye, A.A. and Agbaje, E.O., 2007. Hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic effects of fresh leaf aqueous extract of Cymbopogon citratus Stapf. in rats. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 112(3), 440-444.

Ademuyiwa, A. J., Olamide, O. Y. and Oluwatosin, O. O. 2015. The effects of Cymbopogon citratus (Lemongrass) on the blood sugar level, lipid profiles and hormonal profiles of Wistar albino rats. American Journal of Toxicology, 1, 8-18.

Ali, R. B., Atangwho, I. J., Kuar, N., Ahmad, M., Mahmud, R. and Asmawi, M.Z. 2013. In vitro and in vivo effects of standardized extract and fractions of Phaleria macrocarpa fruits pericarp on lead carbohydrate digesting enzymes. BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 13(1), 1-11.

Aronoff, S. L., Berkowitz, K., Shreiner, B. and Want, L. 2004. Glucose metabolism and regulation: beyond insulin and glucagon. Diabetes Spectrum, 17, 183-190.

Arsiningtyas, I. S., Gunawan-Puteri, M. D. P. T., Kato, E. and Kawabata, J. 2014. Identification of α-glucosidase inhibitors from the leaves of Pluchea indica (L.) Less., a traditional Indonesian herb: promotion of natural product use. Natural Product Research, 28(17), 1350-1353.

Bae, I.J., Park, S.H., Jung, S.Y., Park. B.H. and Chae, S.W. 2015. Hypoglycemic effects of aqueous persimmon leaf extract in a murine model of diabetes. Molecular Medicine Reports, 12, 2547-2554.

Dent, M., Dragovic-Uzelac, V., Penic, M., Brncic, M., Bosiljkov, T. and Levaj, B. 2012. The effect of extraction solvents, temperature and time on the composition and mass fraction of polyphenols in Dalmatian wild sage (Salvia officinalis L.) extracts. Food Technology Biotechnology, 51(1), 84-91.

Eseyin, O., Ebong, P., Eyong, E., Awofisayo, O. and Agboke, A. 2010. Effects of Telfairia occidentalis on oral glucose tolerance in rats. African Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology, 4(6), 368-372.

Geetha, T. S. and Geetha, N. 2014. Phytochemical screening, quantitative analysis of primary and secondary metabolites of Cymbopogon citratus (DC) stapf. leaves from Kodaikanal hills, Tamilnadu. International Journal of PharmTech Research, 6(2), 521-529.

Gunawan-Puteri, M. D. P. T. and Kawabata, J. 2010. Novel α-glucosidase inhibitors from Macaranga tanarius leaves. Food Chemistry, 123(2), 384-389.

Gunawan-Puteri, M. D. P. T., Josopandojo, B. M., Adiyoga, G. H., Kartawiria, I. S. and Widiputri, D.I. 2017. Aqueous extraction optimization of C. citratus for development of food ingredients with alpha glucosidase inhibitory. In Sukmana, I. and Ulvan, A. (Eds). Integrated Sci-Tech: Interdisciplinary Research Approach. Vol. 2, p. 55-61. Indonesia: Research Institute and Community Services University of Lampung.

Hendra, P., Fenty, Andreani, P. R., Pangestuti, M. E. and Julianus, J. 2017. Evaluation of antihyperlipidemic, anti-Inflammatory, and analgesic activities of Eurycoma longifolia in animal models. International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, 9(3), 166-169.

Ieyama, T., Gunawan-Puteri, M. D. P. T. and Kawabata, J. 2011. α-Glucosidase inhibitors from the bulb of Eleutherine americana. Food Chemistry, 128(2), 308-311.

James, D. B., Owolabi, O. A., Elebo, N., Hassan, S. and Odemene, L. 2009. Glucose tolerance test and some biochemical effect of Phyllanthus amarus aqueous extracts on normaglycemic Albino rats. African Journal of Biotechnology, 8(8), 1637-1642.

Jo, S. H., Ha, K. S., Moon, K. S., Lee, O. H., Jang, H. D. and Kwon, Y. I. 2011. In vitro and in vivo anti-hyperglycemic effects of Omija (Schizandra chinensis) fruit. International Journal of Molecular Sciences, 12(2), 1359-1370.

Munin, A. and Edwards-Levy, F. 2011. Review of Encapsulation of natural polyphenolic compounds; a review. Pharmaceutics, 3(4), 793-829.

Mustaffa, F., Hassan, Z., Yusof, N. A., Razak, K. N. A. and Asmawi, M. Z. 2014. Antidiabetic Mechanism of standardized extract, fraction and subfraction of Cinnamomum iners leaves. International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences Review and Research, 26(2), 209-214.

Nivetha, G., Vishnupriya, V. and Gayathri, R. 2016. Comparative evaluation of anti-diabetic activity of Lemon Grass oil and Tulasi oil. International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences Review and Research, 39(1), 221-225.

Nogueira, R. I., Santiago, M. C. P. de A., Paim, D. R. S. F., Santos, L. F., Carlos, A. L. M., Wilberg V. C., Godoy, R. L. O. and Freitas, S.P. 2014. Aqueous extract of pomegranate peels (Punica granatum) encapsulated by spray drying. Proceeding of the 19th International Drying Symposium 24-27 Aug 2014. Lyon: France.

Oboh, G., Agunloye, O. M., Adefegha, S.A., Akinyemi, A. J., and Ademiluyi, A. O. 2015. Caffeic and chlorogenic acids inhibit key enzymes linked to type 2 diabetes (in vitro): a comparative study. Journal of Basic and Clinical Physiology and Pharmacology, 26(2), 165-170.

Parikh, A., Siddharth, A. and Kirtesh, R. A. 2014. A review on applications of maltodextrin in pharmaceutical industry. International Journal of Pharmacy and Biological Sciences, 4(4), 67-74.

Pattanayak, S., Nayak, S. S., Pand, D. and Shende, V. 2009. Hypoglycemic of Cajanus scarabaeoides in glucose overloaded and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Bangladesh Journal of Pharmacology, 4(2), 131-135.

Rathod, N. R., Chitme, H. R., Irchhaiya, R. and Chandra, R. 2011. Hypoglycemic effect of Calotropis gigantean Linn. leaves and flowers in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Oman Medical Journal, 26(2), 104-108.

Rosak, C. and Mertes, G. 2012. Critical evaluation of the role of acarbose in the treatment of diabetes: patient considerations. Diabetes, Metabolic Syndrome and Obesity, 5, 357–367.

Santoso, S., Soedarma, C., Adiyoga, G. H., Gunawan-Puteri, M. D. P. T. and Sutanto, H. 2016. Alpha-glucosidase inhibitory effect of methanolic extracts from Indonesian plants. Proceeding of the 2nd International Conference on Sustainable Global Agriculture and Food 9-11 Aug 2016. Semarang: Indonesia.

Shah, G., Shri, R., Panchal, V., Sharma, N., Singh, B. and Mann, A.S. 2011. Scientific basis for the therapeutic use of Cymbopogon citratus, stapf (Lemon grass). Journal of Advanced Pharmaceutical Technology and Research, 2(1), 3-8.

Wongnawa, M., Tohkayomatee, R., Bumrungwong, N. and Wongnawa. S. 2014. Alpha-glucosidase inhibitory effect and inorganic constituents of Phyllantus amarus Schum. & Thonn.ash. Songklanakarin Journal of Science and Technology, 36(5), 541-546.

Wood, I. S. and Trayhurn, P. 2003. Glucose transporters (GLUT and SGLT): Expanded families of sugar transport proteins. British Journal of Nutrition, 89, 3-9.

Wright, E. M., Martin, M. G. and Turk, E. 2003. Intestinal Absorption in health and disease-sugars. Best Practice and Research, Clinical Gastroenterology, 17(6), 943-956.

Yeo, J. Y., Ha, T. J., Nam, J. S. and Jung, M. H. 2011. Antidiabetic effects of Vigna nakashimae extract in db/db mice. Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry, 75(11), 2223-2228.

Yusoff, N. A., Ahmad, M., Hindi, B., Widyawati, T., Yam, M. F., Mahmud, R., Razak, K. N. A., and Asmawi, M. Z. 2015. Aqueous extract of Nypa fruticans Wurmb. vinegar alleviates postprandial hyperglycemia in normoglycemic rats. Nutrients, 7(8), 7012-7026.

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.24071/jpsc.1521531


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2018 Jurnal Farmasi Sains dan Komunitas (Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Community)









Web Analytics JPSC Stats