Sisilia Novena Kusumaningsih


Teaching a multicultural classroom has always been challenging for educators. With the rush toward global standardization, there is a concern that uniformity in education will sacrifice students’ freedom in expressing their skills and knowledge. This problem can be seen in the way students are being assessed. The rapid growth of standardized tests and the demand to meet yearly progress thresholds are tangible examples of how assessments may limit the way students demonstrate their learning attainment. This article aims at presenting several alternatives teachers could take to implement Universal Design for Learning (UDL) and inclusive assessment principles in assessing multicultural classrooms. This analytic autoethnography study yielded three themes: providing options of assessment forms, providing accommodation in conducting assessments, and using the strength-based language in assessment feedback.


universal design for learning; inclusive assessment; multicultural classrooms

Full Text:



Allman, C., Beech, M. & Thomas, J. (2004). Assessment for the diverse classroom. Florida: Bureau of Exceptional Education and Student Services.

Ambrosseti, D. & Cho, G. (2005). Synergism in learning: A critical reflection of authentic assessment. The High School Journal, 89(1), 57-62. doi: 10.1353/hsj.2005.0015

Baker, E. (2013). Critical moments in research and use of assessment. Theory Into Practice, 52(Sup1), 83-92. doi: 10.1080/00405841.2013.795445

Banks, J. A. (2013). For Freedom’s Sake. Transforming curriculum for a culturally diverse society, 75.

Canagarajah, A. S. (2012). Teacher development in a global profession: An autoethnography. Tesol Quarterly, 46(2), 258-279. doi: 10.1002/tesq.18

Center for Applied Special Technology. (2018). Universal Design for Learning guidelines version 2.2. Retrieved on August 10, 2021, from

Center for Innovative Teaching and Learning. (n.d). Retrieved on October 28, 2019, from

Cihak, D. F., Kirk, E. R., & Boon, R. T. (2009). Effects of classwide positive peer “tootling” to reduce the disruptive classroom behaviors of elementary students with and without disabilities. Journal of Behavioral Education, 18, 267. doi: 10.1007/s10864-009-9091-8

Clark, C. & Gruba, P. (2010). The use of social networking sites for foreign language learning: An autoethnographic study of Livemocha. In C.H. Steel, M.J. Keppell, P. Gerbic & S. Housego (Eds.), Curriculum, technology & transformation for an unknown future. Proceedings Ascilite Sydney 2010 (pp.164-173). Retrieved on July 29, 2021, from

Coelho, E. (2012). Language and learning in multilingual classrooms. New York: Multilingual Matters.

Cuseo, J. (October, 2015). Effective culturally-inclusive assessment of student learning and academic performance. Retrieved on August 28, 2021 from

Ellis, C., Adams, T. E., & Bochner, A. P. (2011). Autoethnography: an overview. Historical social research/Historische sozialforschung, 273-290. Retrieved on August 24, 2021, from

Ezeh, C. (2021). A Comparison of Storyjumper with Book Creator, and Storybird for Multimodal Storytelling. TESL-EJ, 24(1), 1-9. Retrieved on August 2, 2021, from

Gielen, S., Dochy, F., & Dierick, S. (2003). The influence of assessment on learning. In M. Segers, F. Dochy, & E. Cascallar (Eds.), Optimising new modes of assessment: In search of quality and standards (pp. 37–54). Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Publishers.

Goodwin, L.A. (2000). Honoring of knowing. Columbia University.

Gulikers, J. T., Bastiaens, T. J., & Kirschner, P. A. (2004). A five-dimensional framework for authentic assessments. Educational Technology Research and Development, 52(3), 67-86. Retrieved on August 24, 2021, from

Kaur, A., Noman, M., & Nordin, H. (2017). Inclusive assessment for linguistically diverse learners in higher education. Assessment & Evaluation in Higher Education, 42(5), 756-771. doi: 10.1080/02602938.2016.1187250

Linn, R. L. (2000). Assessment and accountability. Educational Researcher, 29, 4-16. doi:

Liu, S. (2014). L2 reading comprehension: exclusively L2 competence or different competences? Journal of Language Teaching & Research, 5(5). doi:10.4304/jltr.5.5.1085-1091

Morris, C., Milton, E., & Goldstone, R. (2019). Case study: suggesting choice: inclusive assessment processes. Higher Education Pedagogies, 4(1), 435-447. doi:

Nieto, S. (2012). Affirming diversity: the sociopolitical context of multicultural education. Boston, MA: Pearson Education

Popham, W. J. (2001). The truth about testing. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision & Curriculum Development.

Rao, K., & Torres, C. (2017). Supporting academic and affective learning processes for English language learners with universal design for learning. Tesol QUARTERLY, 51(2), 460-472. Retrieved on August 20, 2021, from

Rivera, C., & Collum, E. (2004). An analysis of state assessment policies addressing the accommodation of English language learners. National Assessment Governing Board.

Salkind, N. J. (2017). Exploring research. Boston, MA: Pearson

Segers, M., Dierick, S., & Dochy, F. (2001). Quality standards for new modes of assessment. An exploratory study of the consequential validity of the overall test. European Journal of Psychology of Education, 16(4), 569–586. Retrieved on July 30, 2021, from

Tanner, D. E. (2001). Authentic assessment: A solution, or part of the problem? The High School Journal, 85(1), 24-29. Retrieved on January 9, 2021, from

Tovani, C. (2004). Do I really have to teach reading?: Content comprehension, grades 6-12. Portland, Me: Stenhouse Publishers.

Volante, L. (2008). Equity in multicultural student assessment. The Journal of Educational Thoughts, 42(1), 11-26. Retrieved on on January 9, 2021, from




  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2021 sisilia novena kusumaningsih

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

Indexed and abstracted in:



LLT Journal Sinta 2 Certificate (S2 = Level 2)

We would like to inform you that LLT Journal: A Journal on Language and Language Teaching has been nationally accredited Sinta 2 by the Ministry of Education, Culture, Research and Technology of the Republic of Indonesia based on the decree  No. Surat Keterangan 158/E/KPT/2021. Validity for 5 years: Vol 23 No 1, 2020 till Vol 27 No 2, 2024



This work is licensed under CC BY-SA.

Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License


Free counters!

 LLT Journal: A Journal on Language and Language Teaching is published twice a year, namely in April and October by the English Language Education Study Programme of Teacher Training and Education Faculty of Sanata Dharma University, Yogyakarta, Indonesia.