Diphthongized Monophthongs of Acehnese Oral Vowels in Samatiga Dialect

Tanzir Masykar, Febri Nurrahmi, Abdullah Al Mulhim


Diphthong has been reported as the character of old Acehnese, which is now eroded in some words of modern Acehnese. However, some dialects, such as Daya and Pidie, still retain certain diphthongs in certain Acehnese words. Samatiga dialect is one of the dialects in Aceh Barat. People in Aceh Barat has commonly marked this dialect as producing certain vowel as diphthong similar to those in Teunom and Daya. Thus, the current study aims to explore the diphthongization of certain monophthong in Acehnese words by the people in Samatiga. Specifically, it aims to learn the monophthongs often diphthongized in this dialect, the position in which the diphthong occurs, and the movement trajectory of the diphthong. Two language consultants are consulted to explore their diphthongization, and two other Acehnes are discussed to determine their diphthongization. Their production is recorded using a high-quality recorder and analyzed in Praat to obtains its formants data. The findings indicate that not all monophthongs are produced as diphthongs in Samatiga dialect. Samatiga dialect replaces vowel /ɛ/and /ɔ/ with diphthong /ai/ and /au/. The diphthong /au/ seems to be unique to Samatiga dialect since previous studies did not mention Acehnese diphthong ending in /u/. The diphthongization only occurs when it comes in the word final and open syllable. The diphthong /au/trajectory movement is greater than /ai/, indicating the former, not the initial may experience transformation into monophthong like other major dialects in Aceh.



Acehnese diphthong; diphthongization of Acehnese; Acehnese dialect; Samatiga dialect of Acehnese

Full Text:



Al-Auwal, T. M. R. (2017). Reluctance of Acehnese youth to use Acehnese. Studies in English Language and Education, 4(1), 1-14.

Al-Harbi, A. A. A.-A. (2003). Acehnese coda condition: An optimality-theoretic account. Umm Al-Qura University Journal of Educational and Social Sciences and Humanities, 15(1), 9-28.

Asyik, A. G. (1987). A Contextual Grammar of Acehnese Sentences. University of Michigan.

Boersma, P., & Weenink, D. (2017). Praat: Doing phonetics by computer.

Deterding, D. (2000). Measuring of the /eɪ/ and /əʊ/ vowels of young English speakers in Singapore. In D. D. A. Brown, & E.L.Low (Ed.), The English language in Singapore: Research on pronunciation (pp. 93-99). Singapore Association for Applied Linguistics.

Deterding, D. (2003). An instrumental study of the monophthong vowels of Singapore English *. English world-wide, 1, 1-16.

Durie, M. (1985). A grammar of Acehnese on the basis of a dialect of north Aceh. 1-296.

Hayward, K. (2000). Experimental Phonetics. Longman.

Ling, L. E. (2010). English in Singapore and Malaysia. In A. Kirkpatrick (Ed.), The Routledge handbook of world Englishes (pp. 229).

Mustaqim, M., Aziz, Z. A., & Muthalib, K. A. (2020). The Use of Acehnese-Chamic Derived Lexical Items Used by English Department Students of UIN Ar-Raniry. English Education Journal, 11(1), 131-162.

Nucifera, P. (2018). Diftong dalam Bahasa Aceh Penelitian pada Masyarakat Penutur Asli Bahasa Aceh di Desa Meunasah Reudeup Kabupaten Bireun, Aceh. Jurnal Samudra Bahasa, 1(1), 15-22.

Pillai, S., & Yusuf, Y. Q. (2012). An instrumental analysis of Acehnese oral vowels. Language and Linguistics, 13, 1029-1050.

Yusuf, Q., & Pillai, S. (2013). An acoustic description of diphthongs in two varieties of acehnese. Pertanika Journal of Social Science and Humanities, 21, 153-158.

Yusuf, Y. Q. (2013). A Comparative Study of Vowels in the Acehnese Language Spoken in Kedah, Malaysia and Aceh, Indonesia [1-488].

Yusuf, Y. Q., & Pillai, S. (2016). An instrumental study of oral vowels in the Kedah variety of Acehnese. Language Sciences, 54, 14-25. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.langsci.2015.09.001

Yusuf, Y. Q., Pillai, S., & Ali, N. T. A. M. (2013). Speaking Acehnese in Malaysia. Language & Communication, 33(1), 50-60.

Zulfadhli. (2015). A Sociolinguistics Investigation of Acehnese with a focus on West Acehnese: a stigmatised dialect [1-466].

Zwicker, E., & Terhardt, E. (1980). Analytical expressions for critical‐band rate and critical bandwidth as a function of frequency. The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 68(5), 1523-1525.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.24071/joll.v21i2.3379


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

Journal of Language and Literature (JOLL) is published by  Prodi Sastra Inggris, Fakultas Sastra, Universitas Sanata Dharma.

JOLL is indexed in:


This journal is is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License 

View My Stats