Stefanus Igolois G. Uran


The Flipped Classroom model has been a debatable issue, especially due to its triumph in the new set during the current outbreak of Covid-19. This study attempts to assess the effectiveness and explore the barriers and boosters of an FC approach in the Reading for Academic Purpose course in a private university in NTT Province, Indonesia. Employing a mixed-method design, this study generated data from the pre-and post-test and students TOWS (Threat-Opportunity-Weakness-Strength) analysis. Two groups of fourth-semester students, comprising 35 in a Blended Learning setting and another 23 in a Flipped Classroom, were taught similar reading skills and tasks. The paired-samples t-test indicates both FC (p=0.03<0.05, d=-0.70, medium effect size) and BL (p=0.00<0.05, d=-1.06, large effect size) settings were statistically significant by comparison. The independent-samples t-test used to contrast their effectiveness shows no statistically significant difference between groups (t[56]=1.11, p=0.27, d=0.29, small effect size). Although FC students benefited equally from the learning process in BL, they gained a lower mean score than their counterparts. TOWS analysis requires more improvement in FC due to students’ resilience to change, inability to self-learning management, poor collaboration and communication, technological setbacks, technical issues, and other socio-environmental constraints.


blended learning, flipped classroom, pandemic Covid-19, reading for academic purpose, TOWS analysis

Full Text:



Abeysekera, L., & Dawson, P. (2016). Motivation and cognitive load in the flipped classroom: Definition, rationale, and a call for research. Higher Education Research and Development, 34(1), 1-14. https://doi.org/10.1080/07294360.2014.934336

Afrilyasanti, R., Cahyono, B. Y., & Astuti, U. P. (2017). Indonesian EFL students’ perceptions on the implementation of flipped classroom model. Journal of Language Teaching and Research. 8(3), 476-484. http://dx.doi.org/10.17507/jltr.0803.05

Ahmed, S. (2016). The flipped classroom model to develop Egyptian EFL students' listening comprehension. English Language Teaching, 9(9), 166-178. https://doi.org/10.5539/elt.v9n9p166

Arnold-Garza, S. (2014). The flipped classroom teaching model and its use for information literacy instruction. Communication in Information Literacy. 8(1), 7-22. https://doi.org/10.15760/comminfolit.2014.8.1.161

Bishop, J. L., Verleger, M. A. (2013). The flipped classroom: A survey of the research. In Proceedings of the 120th ASEE annual conference & exposition. American Society for Engineering Education. 30(9), 1-18. https://www.asee.org/public/conferences/20/papers/6219/download

Bohaty, B. S., Redford, G. J., & Gadbury-Amyot, C. C. (2016). Flipping the classroom: Assessment of strategies to promote student centered, self-directed learning in a dental school course in Pediatric Dentistry. Journal of Dental Education. 80(11), 1319–27. https://doi.org/10.1002/j.0022-0337.2016.80.11.tb06217.x

Brame, C., (2013). Flipping the classroom. Vanderbilt University Center for Teaching. http://cft.vanderbilt.edu/guides-sub-pages/flipping-the-classroom/

Bransford, J. D., Brown, A. L., & Cocking, R. R. (2000). How people learn: Brain, mind, experience, and school. National Academy Press.

Brooks, N., & Weaver, H. (2017). Two sides of the flip in middle grades ELA: Student and teacher perspectives. In: Young, C. A., & Moran, C. M. (eds) Applying the flipped classroom model to English Language Arts Education. IGI Global.

Creswell, J. W. (2012). Educational research: Planning, conducting and evaluating quantitative and qualitative research (4th ed). Pearson.

Crouch, C. H. & Mazur, E. (2001). Peer instruction: Ten years of experience and results. American Journal of Physics. 69(9), 970-977. https://doi.org/10.1119/1.1374249

Evseeva, A. & Solozhenko, A. (2015). Use of flipped classroom technology in language learning. XV International Conference "Linguistic and Cultural Studies: Traditions and Innovations". https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2015.10.006

Fauzi, A. (2020). The in-class flip model in teaching speaking: Improving elementary students’ skill and learning process. Indonesian Journal of Educational Research and Review, 3(2), 64-71. http://dx.doi.org/10.23887/ijerr.v3i2.26600

Goodwin, B., & Miller, K. (2013). Research says evidence on flipped classrooms is still coming in. Technology-Rich Learning, 70(6), 78-80. https://www.ascd.org/el/articles/evidence-on-flipped-classrooms-is-still-coming-in

Hamouda, A. (2013). An investigation of listening comprehension problems encountered by Saudi students in the EFL listening classroom. International Journal of Academic Research in Progressive Education and Development, 2(2), 113–155. https://pdf4pro.com/view/an-investigation-of-listening-comprehension-problems-4e7c91.html

Hsieh, J. S. C., Wu, W. V., & Marek, M. W. (2016). Using the flipped classroom to enhance EFL learning. Computer Assisted Language Learning, 30(1-2), 1–25. https://doi.org/10.1080/09588221.2015.1111910

Jones, M. (2016). A case study of blended learning in higher education in Malaysia: Flipped, flopped, or forgotten?. 3rd Teaching & Education Conference, Barcelona, 132–13. https://doi.org/10.20472/TEC.2016.003.012

Khoiriyah. (2021). Flipping the classroom to enhance EFL students’ listening skill. Journal of English as a Foreign Language. 11(1), 21-41. https://doi.org/10.23971/jefl.v11i1.2010

Lage, M. J., Platt, G. J., & Tregalia, M. (2000). Inverting the classroom: A gateway to creating an inclusive learning environment. The Journal of Economic Education, 31(1), 30-43. https://doi.org/10.2307/1183338

Lee, G. & Wallace, A. (2018). Flipped learning in the English as a foreign language classroom: outcomes and perceptions. TESOL Quarterly, 52(1), 62–84. https://doi.org/10.1002/tesq.372

Lewis, C. E., Chen, D. C., & Relan, A. (2018). Implementation of a flipped classroom approach to promote active learning in the third-year surgery clerkship. American journal of surgery, 215(2), 298–303. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.amjsurg.2017.08.050

Lockwood, R. B. (2014). Flip it! Strategies for the ESL classroom. University of Michigan Press.

Maharsi, I., Wijayanti, Y. R., & Astari, T. R. (2021). Evaluating flipped classroom approach in EFL students’ reading classes. LLT Journal: A Journal on Language and Language Learning, 24(1), 92-102. https://doi.org/10.24071/llt.v24i1.2768

Marsh, D. (2012). Blended learning creating learning opportunities for language learners. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Mehring, J. (2018). The flipped classroom. In: Mehring, J., & Leis, A. (eds). Innovations in flipping the language classroom. Singapore: Springer. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-10-6968-0_1

Moran, C., & Young, C. A. (2013). Active learning in the flipped English language arts classroom. In J. Keengwe, G. Onchwari, & J. Oigara (Eds.), Promoting active learning through the flipped classroom model. IGI Global.

Pudin, C. S. J. (2017). Exploring a flipped learning approach to teaching grammar for ESL students. Indonesian Journal of English Language Teaching and Applied Linguistics, 2(1), 51–64. https://doi.org/10.21093/ijeltal.v2i1.47

Rintaningrum, R. (2018). Investigating reasons why listening in English is difficult: Voice from foreign language learners. Asian EFL Journal, 20(11), 112–120. https://www.asian-efl-journal.com

Rotellar, C., & Cain, J. (2016). Research, perspectives, and recommendations on implementing the flipped classroom. American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education, 80(2),34. https://doi.org/10.5688/ajpe80234

Schell, J. (2012). Use of the term flipped classroom. Turn to your neighbor: The official peer instruction blog. Retrieved from https://blog.peerinstruction.net/useof-the- term-flipped-classroom/

Shih, H. J., & Huang, S. C. (2019). College students’ metacognitive strategy use in an EFL flipped classroom. Computer Assisted Language Learning, 33(7), 755-784. https://doi.org/10.1080/09588221.2019.1590420

Strayer, J. F. (2012). How learning in an inverted classroom influences cooperation, innovation and task orientation. Learning Environments Research, 15(2), 171–193. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10984-012-9108-4

Sugiyono. (2016). Metode penelitian pendidikan: Pendekatan kuantitatif, kulaitatif, dan R&D. Penerbit Alfabeta

Voss, E., & Kostka, I. (2019). Flipping academic English language learning; Experiences from an American university. Springer

Young, C. A., & Moran, C. M. (2017). Applying the flipped classroom model to English Language Arts Education. IGI Global.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.24071/llt.v25i1.4245


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2022 Stefanus Igolois G. Uran

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

Indexed and abstracted in:



LLT Journal Sinta 2 Certificate (S2 = Level 2)

We would like to inform you that LLT Journal: A Journal on Language and Language Teaching has been nationally accredited Sinta 2 by the Ministry of Education, Culture, Research and Technology of the Republic of Indonesia based on the decree  No. Surat Keterangan 158/E/KPT/2021. Validity for 5 years: Vol 23 No 1, 2020 till Vol 27 No 2, 2024

Please kindly note that the new accreditation certificate (S2) is yet to be available. 



This work is licensed under CC BY-SA.

Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License


Free counters!

 LLT Journal: A Journal on Language and Language Teaching is published twice a year, namely in April and October by the English Language Education Study Programme of Teacher Training and Education Faculty of Sanata Dharma University, Yogyakarta, Indonesia.