Modality Analysis in Melania Trumps and Ivanka Trumps Campaign Speeches in Republican National Convention, July 19th, 2016

Hepie Pionery, Arina Isti'anah


Style is a distinctive feature found in language use. One example of language use is a speech. In stylistics, the use of modality in a speech can reveal the speakers style. Subsequently, a style that is shown through the modality can reflect the speakers ideology. This study aimed to find out the ideology reflected by the modality of Melania Trumps and Ivanka Trumps campaign speeches. The speeches were delivered at the Republican National Convention last July 19th, 2016. There were two objectives discussed in this study. First is to find out the type of modality employed by Melania Trump and Ivanka Trump in their campaign speeches. Second is to reveal the ideologies reflected by the use of the modality. A stylistic approach was employed to discuss the types of modality to figure out the ideologies reflected. The data were taken by employing population study. From the analysis, it was found out that there were four types of modality employed by Melania Trumps speech: inclination, obligation, potentiality and ability, and probability. In Ivanka Trumps speech, there were five types of modality found: inclination, usuality, potentiality and ability, probability, and obligation. There were two ideologies reflected by the use of modality. The ideologies found in both speeches were similar. Those were commitment and self-promotion. The commitments were proved by the existence of inclination, while self-promotion is proven by the existence of potentiality and ability, and usuality types of modality.

Keywords: speech, modality, ideology, stylistics


speech; modality; ideology; stylistics

Full Text:



Akmajian, Adrian, Richard A, Demers, Ann K. Farmer, Robert M. Harnish. Linguistics: An Introduction to Language and Communication. London: The MIT Press. 2001.

Bayram, Fatih. Ideology and Political Discourse: A Critical Discourse Analysis of Edorgans Political Speech. Vol. 7. (2010): p. 23-40. ARECLS. November 23, 2016.

Best, John W., James V. Kahn. Research in Education. Boston: Pearson. 2016

Bybee, Joan, Revere Perkins, and William Pagliuca. The Evolution of Grammar: Tense, Aspect, and Modality in the Language of the World. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press. 1994.

Crawford, Hillary E. Transcript of Melania Trumps RNC Speech Shows a Side of Her America Has Yet to See. n.p. July 19, 2016. ( -of-melania-trumps-rnc-speech-showsa-side-of-her-america-has-yet-to-see). October 3, 2016.

Downing, Angela. English Grammar: A University Course. New York: Routledge. 2015.

Drabold, Will. Read Ivanka Trumps Speech at the Republican Convention. n.p. July 22, 2016. ( November 10, 2016.

Gee, James Paul. An Introduction to Discourse Analysis: Theory and Method. New York: Routledge. 2011

Halliday, M.A.K. and Matthiesen, Christian M.I.M. An Introduction to Functional Grammar: 3rd Edition. London: Hodder Education. 2004.

Hillier, Hilary. Analysing Real Texts: Research Studies in Modern English Language. New York: Palgrave Macmillan. 2004.

Horn, Laurence R. and Gregory Ward. The Handbook of Pragmatics. Oxford: Blackwell Publishing Ltd. 2006.

Istianah, Arina. Ideology in Hosni Mubaraks and Muammar Qaddafis Translated Speeches: Critical Discourse Analysis. Thesis. Yogyakarta: Sanata Dharma University. 2012.

Lillian, Donna. L. Modality, Persuassion and Manipulation in Canadian Conservative Discourse. Critical Approaches to Discourse Analysis across Disciplines. Vol. 2. No. 1: p. 1-16. East Carolina University. ( October 7, 2016. 2008

Lock, Graham. Functional English Grammar: An Introduction for Second Language Teacher. New York: Cambridge University Press. 1996.

Locke, Terry. Critical Discourse Analysis. New York: Continuum International Publishing Group. 2004.

Nunan, David. Introducing Discourse Analysis. London: Penguin Books. 1993.

Olanian, Kazeem K., Adelou, Adeniji. Modality in Statement of Objectives in Art-Based Research Article Abstract BritishJournal of English Linguistics. Vol.3. No.1 (2015): p. 42-51. European Centre for Research Training and Development UK ( November 22, 2016.

OGrady, William, Michael Dobrovolsky, Francis Katamba. Contemporary Linguistics: An Introduction. London: Longman. 1996.

Political Speech. Renew Democracy. n.p. November 7, 2011. (renewdemocracy. org/blog/posts/435/Political-Speech). January 18, 2017.

Simpson, Paul. Language, Ideology, and Point of View. New York: Routledge. 2004.

Simpson, Paul. Stylistics: A Resource Book for Student. London: Routledge. 2004.

Toolen, Michael. Language in Literature. London: Routledge. 1998.

Verdonk, Peter. Stylistics. Oxford: Oxford University Press. 2002.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Journal of Language and Literature (JOLL) is published by  Prodi Sastra Inggris, Fakultas Sastra, Universitas Sanata Dharma.

JOLL is indexed in:


This journal is is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License 

View My Stats