LANGUAGE LEARNING STRATEGIES IN ENGLISH AS A FOREIGN LANGUAGE CLASSROOM IN INDONESIAN HIGHER EDUCATION CONTEXT

Firima Zona Tanjung

Abstract


Indonesian university students are not well-familiar with language learning strategies (LLS) as they are dependent on their lecturers. This condition also gets worse because the students still have low level of proficiency although they have already been learning English for multiple years. There have been many researches on students’ LLS related to the four language skills and gender but there is a high need of studying the students’ LLS regarding their age in the Indonesian higher education context. This research aimed at investigating students’ language learning strategies related to their ages and providing some steps to make teaching program more effective by considering students’ LLS and their age as well. This research utilized descriptive survey research design. The participants were 122 English Department students at one of public universities in Borneo Island, Indonesia. The instrument was SILL questionnaire. All the collected data were analyzed statistically. The findings show that students mostly used metacognitive (M=3.857), cognitive (M=3.707), and compensation strategies (M=3.563). The students’ different age led them to select and implement different strategies. Some steps to optimize students’ learning strategies are through inserting LLS instruction in the curriculum of teaching program, implementing certain models of strategy instruction, and developing lecturers’ awareness of designing instruction at which one of the methods that can be employed is eclective methods. Considering all findings, it can be concluded that although indirect strategies get higher means of preference from the participants but they do not only focus on using indirect strategies. They combine those with direct strategies. Further, to make students more successful on their learning, the institution including lecturers and the academic community should take part in the effort of teaching learning strategies. This provides future research area that emphasizes on designing LLS instruction regarding students’ age and level of their education.     

DOI: doi.org/10.24071/llt.2018.Suppl2106

   


Keywords


learning strategy, university students, age

Full Text:

PDF

References


Alhaysony, M. (2012). Vocabulary Discovery Strategy Used by Saudi EFL Students in an Intensive English Language Learning Context. International Journal of Linguistics, 4(2), 518-535. Retrieved from doi:10.5296/ijl.v4i2.1724.

Aunurrahman, Kurniawati, T., & Ramadhiyanti, Y. (2013). Exploring Indonesian College Students Strategies in Learning English Language. Arab World English Journal, 4(3), 317-330. Retrieved from: www.awej.org/images/AllIssues/Volume4/Volume4Number3Sept2013/27.pdf.

Brown, H.D. (2000). Principles of Language Learning and Teaching. (3rd ed.). New York: Longman.

Cesur, M.O. (2011). Can language learning strategies predict Turkish university prep class students’ achievement in reading comprehension?. Procedia Social and Behavioral Sciences, 15, 1920-1924. Retrieved from doi: 10.1016/j.sbspro.2011.04.028.

Chamot, A.U. (2008). Strategy Instruction and Good Language Learners. In C. Griffiths (ed.), Lessons from Good Language Learners (pp.266-281). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Chamot, A.U. (2005). The Cognitive Academic Language Learning Approach (CALLA): an update. In P.A. Richard-Amato and M.A. Snow (eds.), Academic Success for English Language Learners: Strategies for K-12 Mainstream Teachers. White Plains, NY: Longman, 87-101.

Cohen, A.D. (2007). Coming to terms with language strategies: Surveying the experts. In D.C. Cohen & E.M. Macaro (Eds). Language Learner Strategies, pp.29-45. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.

Devlin, M. (1996). Older and Wiser? A comparison of the learning and study strategies of mature age and younger teacher education students. Higher Education Research & Development, 15(1), 51-60.

Freire, P. 1970. Pedagogy of the Oppressed. New York: Seabury Press.

Gerami, M.H. & Baighlou, S.M.G. (2011). Language Learning Strategies Used by Successful and Unsuccessful Iranian EFL Students. Procedia Social and Behavioral Sciences, 29, 1567-1576. Retrieved from doi:10.1016/j.sbspro.2011.11.399.

Graham, S. (1997). Effective Language Learning. Clevedon, Avon: Multilingual Matters.

Grenfell, M. and Harris, V. (1999). Modern Languages and Learning Strategies: In Theory and Practice. London: Routledge.

Hakan, K., Aydin, B., and Bulent, A. (2015). An Investigation of Undergraduates’ Language Learning Strategies. Procedia Social and Behavioral Sciences, 197, 1348-1354. Retrieved from doi:10.1016/j.sbs.pro.2015.07.388.

Imperiani, E. (2012). English Language Teaching in Indonesia and its relation to the role of English as an international language. Passage, J(1), 1-12.

Kumaravadivelu, B. (2006). Understanding Language Teaching from Method to Postmethod. Mahwa, New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc.

Larson, K.R. (2014). Critical Pedagogy(ies) for EFL in Indonesia. TEFLIN Journal. 25(1), 122-138.

Lee, K.R., & Oxford, R. (2008). Understanding EFL learners’ strategy use and strategy awareness. Asian EFL Journal, 10(1), 7-32.

Lengkanawati, N.S. (1997). Contribution of Learning Strategies on Language Proficiency. (Doctoral Dissertation, IKIP Bandung, Indonesia).

Li, W. (2012). An Eclectic Method of College Teaching English. Journal of Language Teaching and Research, 3(1) pp. 161-171.

Lie, A. (2007). Education policy and EFL curriculum in Indonesia: Between the commitment to competence and the queat for higher test score. TEFLIN Journal, 18(1), 1-14.

Lodico, M., Spaulding, D., & Voegtle, K. (2010). Methods in educational research: From theory to practice. San Francisco, CA: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Marcellino, M. (2008). English language teaching in Indonesia: A continuous challenge in education and cultural diversity. TEFLIN Journal, 19(1), 57-69.

Mistar, J., Zuhairi, A., & Umamah, A. (2014). Strategies of learning speaking skill by Indonesian Learners of English and Their Contribution to Speaking Proficiency. TEFLIN Journal, 25(2), 203-216.

Novitasari, H. (2009). Language learning strategies applied by speaking class students. (Undergraduate thesis, Soegijapranata Catholic University, Semarang, Indonesia).

O’Malley, J. Michael, Anna U. Chamot and C. Walker. (1987). Some applications of cognitive theory to second language acquisition. Studies in Second Language Acquisition 9.3: 287-306.

O’Malley, J.M., Chamot, A.U., Stewner-Manzanares, Russo, R.P., & Küpper, L. (1985). Learning strategy applications with students of English as a second language. TESOL Quarterly, 19, 557-584.

Oh, J. (1992). Learning strategies used by university EFL students in Korea. Language Teaching, 1(3), 1-53.

Oktaviyanti, E. (2017). A Critical Review: Language Learning Strategy and Teachers’ Characteristics in Indonesian English Language Teaching. ELLITE Journal, 2(1), 1-6.

Oxford, R. (1990). Language learning strategies, what every teacher should know. New York: Newbury House Publishers.

Richards, J.C. (2013). Creativity in Language Teaching. (Delivered at the Summer Institute for English Teacher of Creativity and Discovery in Teaching University Writing, City University of Hong Kong). Retrieved from: https://www.professorjackrichards.com/wp.../Creativity-in-Language-Teaching.pdf

Rubin, J. (1981). Study of cognitive progresses in second language learning. Applied Linguistics, 11(2), 117-131.

Sadiqah, F. (2015). An Experience of of Implementing Eclectic Method in EFL Class. Dhaka, Bangladesh: BRAC University. Unpublished thesis.

Salahshour, F., Sharifi, M. & Salahshour, N. (2013). The relationship between language learning strategy use, language proficiency level and learner gender. Procedia Social and Behavioral Sciences, 70, 634-643. Retrieved from doi:10.1016/j.sbspro.2013.01.103.

Setiyadi, B., Sukirlan, M., & Mahpul. (2016). How successful learners employ learning strategies in an EFL Setting in the Indonesian Context. Canadian Center of Science and Education, 9(8), 23-38. Retrieved from http://dx.doi.org/10.5539/elt.v9n8p28.

Sheorey, R. (1999). An examination of language learning strategy use in the setting of an indigenized variety of English. System, 27(2), 173-190. Retrieved from: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0346-251X(99)00015-9.

Umamah, A. (2008). A study on the speaking strategies applied by EFL learners at English Department of Unisma. (Unpublished thesis), FKIP Unisma, Malang.

Weinstein, Claire E. & Underwood, Vicki L. (1985). Learning Strategies: The How of Learning. In Judith W. Segal, Susan F. Chipman, Robert Glaser (Eds.). Thinking and Learning Skills: Relating Instruction to Basic Research, pp.241-58. London, Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Pub.

Yang, N. (2002). Integrating portfolios into learning strategy-based instruction for EFL college students. IRAL, International Review of Applied Linguistics in Language Teaching, 41(4), 293-325.

Zare, P. (2012). Language learning strategies among EFL/ESL learners: a review of literature. International Journal of Humanities and Social Science, 2(5), 162-169.


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Indexed and abstracted in:

    

                

         

          

 

This work is licensed under CC BY-SA.

Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License


LLT Journal DOI: https://doi.org/10.24071/llt

p-ISSN: 1410-7201 (since 12 March 1998); e-ISSN: 2579-9533 (since 16 May 2017)

LLT Journal Vol 21, No 2, publication date: 30 October 2018

View My Stats

Free counters!

  LLT Journal: A Journal on Language and Language Teaching is published by the English Language Education Study Programme of Teacher Training and Eduation Faculty of Sanata Dharma University, Yogyakarta, Indonesia.