Language Propriety in Javanese

Soepomo Poedjosoedarmo

Abstract


This paper presents the principles of language propriety in Javanese. The principles presented here cover the speech components offered by Hymes. It discusses how an individual or P1 should behave as a participant in the social network in general and how one should do when engaging in a conversation with an interlocutor (P1 to P2). The discussion also points out what topic and aim of speech should be expressed and with what means of communication one should express it (S, E and I), how should the genre and the speech act be, how are the sentences to be expressed, and what words are to be used or to be avoided to suit the mood of the speech (G, A, and K). Furthermore, the paper also displays how the speech should be uttered and enunciated and how a person should handle his physical gestures to accompany the speech act (a part of N). Some key terms of language propriety in Javanese presented here are ramah, sabar, tepa slira, hormat, empan papan, nujuprana, and subasitaa.

Keywords: propriety, Javanese, speech


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References


Brown, P. & Levinson, S.C. (1987). Politeness, Some Universals in Language Usage. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Grice, H.P. (1975). “Logic and Conversation” in P.Cole & Morgan (eds). Syntax and Semantic Speech Acts. New York: Academy Press.

Hymes, D.H. (1974). Foundation in Sociolinguistics. An Ethnographic Approach. Philadelphia: University of Philadelphia Press.

Leech, G. (2005). “Politeness, Is There an East-West Divide?” Journal of Foreign Language, Vol. 160: 1-30.

Poedjosoedarmo, S. (1968). “Javanese Speech Levels” Indonesia, Ithaca. Cornell University. Poedjosoedarmo, S. (1978). “Language Ettiquette in Indonesia” Spectrum Essays presented to Sutan Takdir Alisyahbana. in S. Udin (ed) Dian Rakyat Jakarta.


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Journal of Language and Literature - Department of English LettersUniversitas Sanata Dharma